Endel Tulving (born May 26, 1927) is an Estonian Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist whose research on human memory has influenced psychological scientists, neuroscientists, and clinicians. He helped separate episodic memory ...
Endel Tulving (born May 26, 1927) is an Estonian Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist whose research on human memory has influenced psychological scientists, neuroscientists, and clinicians. He helped separate episodic memory into two distinct parts.
Tulving is a professor emeritus at the University of Toronto and a Visiting Professor of Psychology at Washington University in St. Louis. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Toronto and his doctorate from Harvard University. In 1979, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In 1988 he was elected into the United States National Academy of Sciences. In 1992, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. He is also a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 2005 he won a Gairdner Foundation International Award, Canada's leading prize in biology and medicine. In 2006, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest civilian honor. In 2007, he was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame.
Tulving has published at least 200 research articles and chapters, and he is widely cited, with an h-index of 69 (as of April, 2010), and in a Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, he ranked as the 36th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto
Senior Research Fellow, NRC Canada, 1964-5
Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, 1972-3
Governing Board, Psychonomic Society, 1974-80
Commonwealth Visiting Professor, Oxford University, 1977-8
Fellow, APA, CPA, Royal Society of Canada, AAAS
APA Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Science Award, 1984
Editor, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1969-72, Psychological Research, 1976-
1972 Organization of Memory. Academic Press (ed. with W. Donaldson).
1973 Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352-73 (with D. M. Thomson).
1974 Recall and recognition of semantically encoded words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 778-87.
1975 Structure of memory traces. Psychological Review, 82, 261-75 (with M. J. Watkins).
1975 Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-94 (with F. I.M. Craik).
1976 Encoding specificity: Relation between recall superiority and recognition failure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 349-61.
1977 The measurement of subjective organization in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 539-56 (with R. J. Sternberg).
1978 Retrieval independence in recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 85, 153-71 (with A. J. Flexsor).
1980 Exceptions to recognition failure to recallable words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 194-209 (with J. M. Gardiner).
1981 Similarity relations in recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 479-96.
1982 Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 8, 336-42 (with D. L. Schachter and H. A. Stark).
1983 Elements of Episodic Memory. Clarendon Press.
1985 How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist, 40, 385-98.
1989 Memory, performance, knowledge and experience. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1, 3-26.
1990 Priming and human memory systems. Science, 247, 301-16 (withD. L. Schachter).