Martin Theodore Orne, M.D., Ph.D. (1927, Vienna, Austria — February 11, 2000) was a professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. Orne pioneered research into demand characteristics illustrating the weakness of informing ...
Martin Theodore Orne, M.D., Ph.D. (1927, Vienna, Austria — February 11, 2000) was a professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Orne pioneered research into demand characteristics illustrating the weakness of informing participants that they are taking part in a psychology experiment and yet expecting them to act normally. He was also well known as a researcher in the field of hypnosis.
Residency in Psychiatry, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, 1957-60
PhD Harvard University, 1958
Appointments & Honors
Professor of Psychiatry and Director, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, 1967-
Member APA Divisions 1, 6, 8 and 30 (Fellow status in 6, 8 and 30)
Benjamin Franklin Gold Medal, International Society of Hypnosis, 1982
APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology, 1986
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Seymour Pollack Award, 1991
American Psychological Society, James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award m Applied Psychology, 1992
1959 The nature of hypnosis: Artifact and essence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 277-99.
1962 On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776-83.
1968 Anticipatory socialization for psychotherapy: Method and rationale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 1202-12 (with P. H. Wender).
1969 Demand characteristics and the concept of quasi-controls. In R. Rosenthal and R. Rosnow (eds), Artifact in Behavioral Research, Academic Press.
1971 The simulation of hypnosis: Why, how and what it means. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 19, 277-96.
1974 Hypnosis. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Helen Hemingway Benton (with A. G. Hammer).
1979 The use and misuse of hypnosis in court. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27,-311-41.
1984 On the differential diagnosis of multiple personality in the forensic context. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32, 118-69 (with D. F. Dinges and E. C. Orne).
1988 Reconstructing memory through hypnosis: Forensic and clinical implications. In H. M. Pettinati (ed.), Hypnosis and Memory, Guilford Press (with D. F. Dinges, E. C. Orne and W. G. Whitehouse).
1988 Hypnotic hyperamnesia: Enhanced memory accessibility or report bias? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 289-95 (with D. F. Dinges, E. C. Orne and W. G. Whitehouse).
1989 Hypnosis. In H. 1. Kaplan, and B. J. Sadock (eds), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry: V. Williams & Wilkins (with D. F. Dinges).
1991 Disorders of self: Myths, metaphors, and the demand characteristics of treatment. In G. Goethals and J. Strauss (eds), The Self: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer-Verlag.
1996 'Memories' of anomalous and traumatic autobiographical experiences: Validation and consolidation of fantasy through hypnosis. Psychological Inquiry (with D. F. Dinges, E. C. Orne and W. G. Whitehouse).