Experimental, experimental analysis of behaviour, industrial and organizational, military, personality and social
1912, Chicago, Illinois, USA
1961, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Carl Iver Hovland (June 12, 1912 – April 16, 1961) was a psychologist working primarily at Yale University and the US Army during World War II who studied attitude change and persuasion. He first reported the sleeper effect after studying the effects of ...
Carl Iver Hovland (June 12, 1912 – April 16, 1961) was a psychologist working primarily at Yale University and the US Army during World War II who studied attitude change and persuasion. He first reported the sleeper effect after studying the effects of the Frank Capra's propaganda film Why We Fight on soldiers in the Army. In later studies on this subject, Hovland collaborated with Irving Janis who would later become famous for his theory of groupthink. Hovland also developed social judgment theory of attitude change. Carl Hovland thought that the ability of someone to resist persuasion by a certain group depended on your degree of belonging to the group.
With the advent of government propaganda in support of the United States’ participation in World War II, the artifacts worth investigating helped with increase of persuasive communication with intent to affect behavior, attitude, and values. These artifacts had a remarkable amount of money invested into them, however, were they effective? This concept of effectiveness and affecting change within individuals, interpersonal relations, and persuasion are exactly what Hovland was interested in. Carl Hovland's contributions to the field of communications were three-fold. First, he emphasized micro-level analysis, next he was interested in all facets of interpersonal communication, and finally he revolutionized persuasive research.
Sterling Professor of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven
USA Director of Experimental Studies and Chief Psychologist, Research Bureau, Information and Education Division, Office Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, 1942-5
APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1957
APA Representative to the Social Science Research Council, USA APA Board of Directors American Academy of Arts and Sciences American Philosophical Society National Academy of Sciences Warren Medal, Society of Experimental Psychologists
1938 Experimental studies in rote-learning theory: II. Reminiscence with varying speeds of syllable presentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 338-53.
1939 Experimental studies in rote-learning theory: IV. Comparison of reminiscence in serialand paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 466-84.
1949 Experiments on Mass Communication. Princeton University Press, (with A. A. Lumsdaine and F. D. Sheffield).
1951 Human learning and retention. In S. S. Stevens (ed.), Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
1952 An experimental comparison of conclusion drawing by the communicator and by the audience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 581-8 (with W. Mandell).
1952 Judgemental phenomena and scales of attitude measurement: Item displacement in Thurstone scales. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 822-32 (with M. Sherif).
1952 The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15, 635-50 (with W. Weiss).
1953 Communication and Persuasion. Yale University Press (with LL. Janis and H. Kelley).
1954 Effects of the mass media of communication. In G. Lindzey (ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology. Addison-Wesley.
1957 Extent of opinion change as a function of amount of change advocated. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54, 257-62 (with H. A. Pritzker).
1957 Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 242-52 (with O. J. Harvey and M. Sherif).
1957 (ed.) The Order of Presentation in Persuasion. Yale University Press.
1959 Persuasion and Persuasibility. Yale University Press (ed. with LL. Janis).
1959 Reconciling conflicting results derived from experimental and survey studies of attitude change. American Psychologist, 14, 8-17.
1960 Attitude Organization and Change. Yale University Press (with M. J. Rosenberg, W. J. McGuire, R. P. Abelson and J. W. Brehm).
1961 Social Judgement: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. Yale University Press (with M. Sherif).